Ooty History

|| In Pursuit of the Past || One Man's Ooty || Golf ( 100 years origin) ||

|| The Government Gardens, Horticultural Societies ||

Gnarled, knobbed and twisted, Sullivan’s oak is an appropriate metaphor for Ootacamund. On the one hand it is apparent that the tree has been much better years; a 1905 photograph capture it standing tall, robust and bushy before what were then the Secretariat offices. On the other, it has survived the ravages of time; look closer and you will discover that its branches have a tangled beauty and that its alternate leaves glow softly in the wintry sun.

John Sullivan, the man who founded Ooty, planted this oak over 150 years ago in front of what was then his residence, Stonehouse. Over the years, Stonehouse was subsumed in flurry of construction for the office of the Secretariat. And today, these offices have become the Government Arts College – a tale of change and continuity that is very much the story of Ooty.
John Sullivan
Identifying Stone House
When you are caught in the snarl and disorder that is Commercial Street; are suffocated settle on the town in a noisy swarm; or are
looking at the “morden” box-like houses that are strung out on the town in a pattern that resembles terrace cultivation; you can’t help wondering whether Sullivan’s
Ooty has vanished forever. Yes it is lost. But yes, it also survives. If you are armed with a sketch of an original ground plan and elevation of Stonehouse, you can identify the exact portions of the old residence- the very first European house in Ootacamund – that were incorporated with the Secretariat office building. If you walk through the over ground and beautifully unkempt cemetery at St. Stephen’s, which lies on a small outcrop behind what must be one of the country’s prettiest churches, you will find the graves of Sullivan’s wife, Henrietta, and his 16-year-old daughter, Harriet. They died within 10 days of each other in 1838.

The famous Ooty Lake – that serpentine stretch of water that has deteriorated in to a sewer-was Sullivan’s creation too. He dammed a stream in order to collect water for the nearby fields, but somehow it never developed in to the headwater of an irrigation system. Half the lake was appropriate and filled in for the racecourse, but the other half still remains one of the remains one of the main tourist attractions in the hill station. But as Reverend Philip Mulley suggests, his real legacy goes well beyond a building that endures here or a crumbling grave that survives there. “ His impact is evident almost every where,” says Mulley, who has keen interesting the history and sociology of the Nilgiris.

It was Sullivan who revolutionised agricultural practice in these mountains, there by changing the face of the local economy. He did this not merely through the introduction of tea (which was commercialized only years after his death), but by freely distributing speed for a large assortment of cereals, fruit and vegetables. He brought in European varieties of wheat and barley (which the Badagas knew as Sullivan ganji), vegetables such as cabbage, radish and turnip and fruits such as peach, apple and strawberry. It was Sullivan who persuaded the initially skeptical Directors of the East India Company to develop the Nilgiris as a sanatorium for sick British troops. And it was Sullivan again who encouraged the construction of the early ghat roads up in to the hills. As anthropologist and Nilgiris expert Paul Hockings has noted: “His impact was widespread and permanent.”

Laying the Foundation
Sullivan didn’t ‘discover’ the Nilgiris, but he was the first to see its potential as a sanatorium and he laid the foundations that changed the social and economic face of these hills. Other European had been up before. An enigmatic Jesuit priest, father Fininicio, made The first expedition in 1603. He made the journey up from Calicut, but all that remains of his visit to Todamala is a small fragment that reveals he tried to converse with the Badagas about Christianity and that he gave “Toda women looking glasses and hanks of thread, with which they were very much pleased”. Two centuries later, after the British had annexed Mysore, There were other expeditions by men such as Buchanan, Mackenzie, keys and MacMohan, some of them reaching only the lower slopes.

It was in 1818 that two youthful Assistant collectors of Coimbatore, Whish and Kindersley, made it to the made it to the Nilgiris plateau. It is not clear what took then up. One story goes they may have been on a shooting expedition, another that they chasing tobacco smugglers. Their account of their explorations, which were of a place that was cool and teeming with the game and wildfowl, stoked the interest of the boss. Sullivan, who was then the permanent Collector of Coimbatore, made the ascent the following year. The letter he wrote from the “Neilgherry hills” to Thomas Munro, who went on to become Governor of Madras, is ecstatic. “This is the finest country ever…. It resembles I suppose Switzerland more than any other part of Europe… the hills beautifully wooded and fine strong spring with running water in every valley.” Within a few months, Sullivan had constructed a small cottage a Dimhutti, near Kotagiri (See picture). It had gone to ruin over the years, being used, among other things, as a cowshed; only recently was it restored by the district administration, thanks to the efforts of the environmental forum, the save Nilgiris Campaign, and the enthusiasm of an energetic Collector. Two years ago, D. Venugopal of the save Nilgiris Campaign, which has been at the forefront of keeping Sullivan’s memory alive, organized a trek that retraced the route he took up to the hills.

By 1822, Sullivan had started building stone house in what was then known as Wotokymond, acquiring land from the Todas at one rupee an acre. He would quickly corner huge tracts of land, many times more than all the other European settler put together. All the while ,Sullivan was peppering his superiors in Madras with letters about the unusually temperate and healthy climate in the Nilgiris and its suitability as a sanatorium. By 1828, there were some 25 European houses, not to mention churches and the houses of immigrants from the plains. This was also the year that Ooty was made a military cantonment. Sullivan’s dream of making it a sanatorium for British troops had been fulfilled, but the governments action meant that Ooty would no longer be in his control but in that of his rival Major William Kelso.

But Sullivan wasn’t through with Ooty. After he finished his tenure as Collector of Coimbatore, he returned in his capacity as the Senior Member of the Board of Revenue of the Madras Presidecy.

Liberal Views
What kind of man was he? The only surviving photograph (see picture) presents a somewhat portly person, who seems both sad and sullen. The only way of piecing his personality together is from scanty official records. We know, for instance, that he was extremely well disposed towards the tribal population – an attitude that brought him into conflict with senior Government officials. He argued, as early as 1832, that the “natives should be entrusted with a great share in the administration of their own affairs”. Remarkably, he also advocated the view that the Todas had total proprietary rights over the lands in the Nilgiris plateau and that they must receive compensation for any land acquired from them. Considering the times he lived in, Sullivan’s views suggest that he was an exraordinarily liberal man. H.B Grigg, in his A Manual of the Nilgiri District in the Madras Presidency (1880),describes him as a “friend of the native”.

At the same time, Sullivan laid himself open to charges that he had used his position in government to acquire enormous personal wealth. He retired and left to England in 1841 and died unsung on January 16,1855 – exactly 150 years to this day. “Most people in Ooty do not even know he existed,” says lawyer and environmental activist B.J Krishnan. “But the important thing for the future of these hills is that we retain the spirit and energy of Sullivan.” The Save Nilgiris Campaign had planned a procession of tribals and a public meeting on January 16, 2005 opn the occasion of his 150th death anniversary.

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